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Saturday, October 17, 2009

Livestock Production


Grasscutter production

Garsscutter thryonomis swinderianus belong to the family of rodent it is also known as cane rate or cutting grass.

System of domestication

In Songhai Delta the method of domestication is intensive system. The animal is sheltered and confined to a cage it is solely dependent on the farmer for livelihood.

Breed

There exist two breed of grasscutter the black race thryonmis swinderianus and brown race thryonomis agregoraianus. The black race though smaller in size than it is prolific in terms of production, it weight between 4-6kg at maturity

The brown race is usually bigger its fur is coarse and light brownish in colour and less prolific

Identification of sex

Head shape: The head of the female grasscutter is elongated while the head shape is oval.

Ano-genital distance- this is a term used to describe the distance between the anus and sex organ. In male there is a gap between the sex organ and the anus.

Female organ there is little or no gap between the anus and organ

Grasscuter handling

Unlike other animals grass cutter is not handled anyhow there is a special way of handling or lifting it up for such reasons as checking the gestation, weight, or during transfer from one den to another, this is called manipulation.

  • The first is by the tail, it’s to be noted that not just anywhere by the tail but a little above where the tail join the hip about 2cm from the hip area. It is not to be too close to the hip or too far from it any where too far or too near can result to cutting of the tail.
  • The second is by the hind legs. Still holding the animal by the tail and letting its feet rest on the floor and catch her by the hip from the back.

Sanitation management

The grasscutter pen was swept everyday water was be put there each day and strong disinfectant placed in the foot deep in front of the entrance into the house.

The dens are cleaned early in the morning from 8:ooam this is to enable one finish on time so that the animal could be fed at the appropriate time.

Feeding

Grasscutter feed falls into two categories. The basal or primary feed and the concentrate or secondary feed

The primary feed refers to the natural feed and they includeguinea grass(panucum maximum) elepgant grass which is the most important and grown in Songhai (pennisetum purpureum).

Artificial feeds are used as a supplement to the natural feed given to the animal to correct or make up for the nutritional requirements of their system.

The recommended artificial feed ration is 50-60g/day /animal and the average daily weight gain is between 9-10g

Pig production

In Songhai the system of pig production is the intensive system. Here attention is focused on the animal as a result of this more effort is made to provide the animal with adequate housing and feeding and provision of health care.

Pig house construction

In Songhai the pens are double pen with adjoining entrance. The first part is under the roof of the building while the other part falls outside the roof. The floor of the pen is coarsely cemented and wallow these are constructed with concrete inside the pen the feeders and drinkers are six inches deep, their size are determined by class or age of pig to be kept

Sanitation

In Songhai the pens are washed/cleaned twice a day.

In the morning the droppings of the pig is packed and taking to the maggotory, the left over feed is removed from the feeding trough and the water bailed out of the drinking trough, the pen is washed thoroughly with water and also wash the pigs, this practices helped reduce the dirtiness of the pens and the pigs. The building is usually disinfected with morigard.

Feeding the pigs

The pig is an omnivorous animal it is therefore easy to feed with cereal grains vegetable fish left over foods etc in addition to formulated feeds

The weaners feed

This feed which is rich in protein and energy its protein content is 10-20% while the energy content is 3000-3200kilocal/kg. This feed is given to weaner at weaning, when they are 5-10kg in weight up to when they attain 35kg body weight.

The growers feed

The energy content is 2800kcalk/k g it contains crude protein of 16-18%. This feed is given to the pig s above 35kg of weight.

Growers feed

This is a feed given to both female and male reproducers, it is composed of regular protein and energy designed for reproductive efficiency. Songhai delta has a special practice of mixing water with the feed that is given to the pigs, it is to make easy digestibility of the food and reduces the dustiness of the feed as well as increase density of the feed.

Water requirement in pigs

Basically there are two sources of water available to the pigs;

· Water mixed in their feed.

· Water served in their water troughs.

Pig require 2-3 liters of water per every kilogramme of feed eaten, 7-20 liters of water per every 1000kg weight

Management of different classes of pigs

Management of piglets

Piglets are young pigs that depend on the sows milk as their principal source of feeding. Pigs that are from one day to six weeks or eight days old depending on duration of weaning period falls within this category.

Areas which was taken care of

  • Cleaning, disinfecting and cutting of their umbilical cord shortly after farrowing.
  • Cutting of their canine teeth 1-3 days after farrowing
  • Injecting them with iron injection 3 days after parturition
  • Giving them preventive medication aganst collibaclosis
  • Castrating the male not needed for futre reproduction at 3-4 weeks of life

Management of weaners

These areas of care include

  • Administration of anti stress vitamin for the fisrt 3 days after weaning and starting them of with little quantity of feed
  • Deworming them after 2 weeks of weaning and reapteing 2-3 months
  • Giving medication to control and prevent external parasite like lice and mites 1-2 weeks after weaning

Management of grower

Those in this class include those that weigh 20-90kg of weight. The principal need of this class of pig is maintenance on good feeding plan, and the best yardstick to measure their performance is their growth rate. As a result, good food in quality and quantity was be given to them to ensure favorable growth rate.

When they attain 30kg body weight male should be separated from the female.

Management of sow

When newly weaned off its piglets it taken to the sows quarter where good food is given to it so it can be conditioned for the next heat period and to increase the number of ova that will be shed

Sow is usually mated when they start showing standing heat and this is usually the day after the commencement of heat the estrous cycle in pig is between 18-19 days an average of 21 days while the heat period last for 21 days

Sows sings of heat

  • Swelling and redness of the vulva
  • Riding other sows in the group
  • Increase in body temperature
  • Loss of apetetite
  • Showing a standing reflex when a hand is placed on its back
  • Undue excitement or agitation with incessant grunting noise.

After mating and the greater part of the gestation period the sow is fed strictly to prevent it from getting too fat

The entire gestation period is 115days on the average, the energy content of its feed is beefed up to encourage milk production and also fortify the soe aganst the strees of farrowing

Signs of farrowing

Swelling of the vulva

Swelling of the teats

Restlessness and loss of appitte

Farrowing

Slimy creamy liquid around the newborn piglet immediately it comes out to avoid suffocating

The piglet is removed from the mother one by one until the last one is given birth to and the piglet returned to their mother for the first milk

The osw is fed with vegetable cassava peals and injected with fercosang.

Disease

There was no incidence of disese out break due to sanitatioin

FEED MILL/FEED FOMULATION

Feed mill is a unit where feed are being prepared to meet with the nutritional requirement of the animal

When going into feed formulation several factors are considered

Age of animal

Origin of animal

Nutritional requirement of the animal

Availability of raw materials

AGE

In formulation of feed one has to consider the age of the animal thus determining the type of feed to be formulated.

Chick grower’s layer

Broiler stater broler finsher broiler breeder

Usually for chick and broiler starter feeds are usually in powderd form for easy swallowing by the young of any animal

Finishers, breeder and layers are coarse feed

Nutritional requirement

All animals at different age or steges have their different/individual nutrient requirement like the protein fats caciumcarbohydrate etc

Raw materials basically different ingridents make up feed which are listed below

Maize- carbohydrate

Soyabean cake- protein

Grandnut cake ,,

Fish meal

Palmkanerl cake- firbe

Wheat offal-fibre

Bone meal- mineral

Salt-mineral

Basically there are two methods of formulating feed

1 ruler of thumb

2person formular

In Songhai the ruler of thumb is used in feed formulation

Ruler of thumb formular

Inc * DM * VNR / 10000

Where Inc – ingredient incorporated

DM- dry matter

VNR- volume of nutrional requirement based on protein

SOIL MANAGEMENT/IMPROVEMENT

Soil ancors plants by their root and from it derive their supply of mineral, salt, water and some cases air. Plant depend only the top soil which contain humus which is usually darker in coulor.

The soil is said to be fertile when it has in it the nutrient in the right quantites for optimum growth of a specific plant.

Practices which increase or maintain soil fertility

In songhaai the follinng are done to increase soil fertility

1 compost this is a form of manure obtaianed as plant and animals decay this while process may be completed between six to eight weeks

2 green manure this is made from green plant often cover crops mulch or weed which may be dug directly in to the soil on decaying thses plant form humus which enrichies the soil. This manure increases the loam component of the soil

3farm yard manure this consist of faces and urine of farm animal together with plant parts which are left over from the food of these animals

Livestock Production


Grasscutter production

Garsscutter thryonomis swinderianus belong to the family of rodent it is also known as cane rate or cutting grass.

System of domestication

In Songhai Delta the method of domestication is intensive system. The animal is sheltered and confined to a cage it is solely dependent on the farmer for livelihood.

Breed

There exist two breed of grasscutter the black race thryonmis swinderianus and brown race thryonomis agregoraianus. The black race though smaller in size than it is prolific in terms of production, it weight between 4-6kg at maturity

The brown race is usually bigger its fur is coarse and light brownish in colour and less prolific

Identification of sex

Head shape: The head of the female grasscutter is elongated while the head shape is oval.

Ano-genital distance- this is a term used to describe the distance between the anus and sex organ. In male there is a gap between the sex organ and the anus.

Female organ there is little or no gap between the anus and organ

Grasscuter handling

Unlike other animals grass cutter is not handled anyhow there is a special way of handling or lifting it up for such reasons as checking the gestation, weight, or during transfer from one den to another, this is called manipulation.

  • The first is by the tail, it’s to be noted that not just anywhere by the tail but a little above where the tail join the hip about 2cm from the hip area. It is not to be too close to the hip or too far from it any where too far or too near can result to cutting of the tail.
  • The second is by the hind legs. Still holding the animal by the tail and letting its feet rest on the floor and catch her by the hip from the back.

Sanitation management

The grasscutter pen was swept everyday water was be put there each day and strong disinfectant placed in the foot deep in front of the entrance into the house.

The dens are cleaned early in the morning from 8:ooam this is to enable one finish on time so that the animal could be fed at the appropriate time.

Feeding

Grasscutter feed falls into two categories. The basal or primary feed and the concentrate or secondary feed

The primary feed refers to the natural feed and they includeguinea grass(panucum maximum) elepgant grass which is the most important and grown in Songhai (pennisetum purpureum).

Artificial feeds are used as a supplement to the natural feed given to the animal to correct or make up for the nutritional requirements of their system.

The recommended artificial feed ration is 50-60g/day /animal and the average daily weight gain is between 9-10g

Pig production

In Songhai the system of pig production is the intensive system. Here attention is focused on the animal as a result of this more effort is made to provide the animal with adequate housing and feeding and provision of health care.

Pig house construction

In Songhai the pens are double pen with adjoining entrance. The first part is under the roof of the building while the other part falls outside the roof. The floor of the pen is coarsely cemented and wallow these are constructed with concrete inside the pen the feeders and drinkers are six inches deep, their size are determined by class or age of pig to be kept

Sanitation

In Songhai the pens are washed/cleaned twice a day.

In the morning the droppings of the pig is packed and taking to the maggotory, the left over feed is removed from the feeding trough and the water bailed out of the drinking trough, the pen is washed thoroughly with water and also wash the pigs, this practices helped reduce the dirtiness of the pens and the pigs. The building is usually disinfected with morigard.

Feeding the pigs

The pig is an omnivorous animal it is therefore easy to feed with cereal grains vegetable fish left over foods etc in addition to formulated feeds

The weaners feed

This feed which is rich in protein and energy its protein content is 10-20% while the energy content is 3000-3200kilocal/kg. This feed is given to weaner at weaning, when they are 5-10kg in weight up to when they attain 35kg body weight.

The growers feed

The energy content is 2800kcalk/k g it contains crude protein of 16-18%. This feed is given to the pig s above 35kg of weight.

Growers feed

This is a feed given to both female and male reproducers, it is composed of regular protein and energy designed for reproductive efficiency. Songhai delta has a special practice of mixing water with the feed that is given to the pigs, it is to make easy digestibility of the food and reduces the dustiness of the feed as well as increase density of the feed.

Water requirement in pigs

Basically there are two sources of water available to the pigs;

· Water mixed in their feed.

· Water served in their water troughs.

Pig require 2-3 liters of water per every kilogramme of feed eaten, 7-20 liters of water per every 1000kg weight

Management of different classes of pigs

Management of piglets

Piglets are young pigs that depend on the sows milk as their principal source of feeding. Pigs that are from one day to six weeks or eight days old depending on duration of weaning period falls within this category.

Areas which was taken care of

  • Cleaning, disinfecting and cutting of their umbilical cord shortly after farrowing.
  • Cutting of their canine teeth 1-3 days after farrowing
  • Injecting them with iron injection 3 days after parturition
  • Giving them preventive medication aganst collibaclosis
  • Castrating the male not needed for futre reproduction at 3-4 weeks of life

Management of weaners

These areas of care include

  • Administration of anti stress vitamin for the fisrt 3 days after weaning and starting them of with little quantity of feed
  • Deworming them after 2 weeks of weaning and reapteing 2-3 months
  • Giving medication to control and prevent external parasite like lice and mites 1-2 weeks after weaning

Management of grower

Those in this class include those that weigh 20-90kg of weight. The principal need of this class of pig is maintenance on good feeding plan, and the best yardstick to measure their performance is their growth rate. As a result, good food in quality and quantity was be given to them to ensure favorable growth rate.

When they attain 30kg body weight male should be separated from the female.

Management of sow

When newly weaned off its piglets it taken to the sows quarter where good food is given to it so it can be conditioned for the next heat period and to increase the number of ova that will be shed

Sow is usually mated when they start showing standing heat and this is usually the day after the commencement of heat the estrous cycle in pig is between 18-19 days an average of 21 days while the heat period last for 21 days

Sows sings of heat

  • Swelling and redness of the vulva
  • Riding other sows in the group
  • Increase in body temperature
  • Loss of apetetite
  • Showing a standing reflex when a hand is placed on its back
  • Undue excitement or agitation with incessant grunting noise.

After mating and the greater part of the gestation period the sow is fed strictly to prevent it from getting too fat

The entire gestation period is 115days on the average, the energy content of its feed is beefed up to encourage milk production and also fortify the soe aganst the strees of farrowing

Signs of farrowing

Swelling of the vulva

Swelling of the teats

Restlessness and loss of appitte

Farrowing

Slimy creamy liquid around the newborn piglet immediately it comes out to avoid suffocating

The piglet is removed from the mother one by one until the last one is given birth to and the piglet returned to their mother for the first milk

The osw is fed with vegetable cassava peals and injected with fercosang.

Disease

There was no incidence of disese out break due to sanitatioin

FEED MILL/FEED FOMULATION

Feed mill is a unit where feed are being prepared to meet with the nutritional requirement of the animal

When going into feed formulation several factors are considered

Age of animal

Origin of animal

Nutritional requirement of the animal

Availability of raw materials

AGE

In formulation of feed one has to consider the age of the animal thus determining the type of feed to be formulated.

Chick grower’s layer

Broiler stater broler finsher broiler breeder

Usually for chick and broiler starter feeds are usually in powderd form for easy swallowing by the young of any animal

Finishers, breeder and layers are coarse feed

Nutritional requirement

All animals at different age or steges have their different/individual nutrient requirement like the protein fats caciumcarbohydrate etc

Raw materials basically different ingridents make up feed which are listed below

Maize- carbohydrate

Soyabean cake- protein

Grandnut cake ,,

Fish meal

Palmkanerl cake- firbe

Wheat offal-fibre

Bone meal- mineral

Salt-mineral

Basically there are two methods of formulating feed

1 ruler of thumb

2person formular

In Songhai the ruler of thumb is used in feed formulation

Ruler of thumb formular

Inc * DM * VNR / 10000

Where Inc – ingredient incorporated

DM- dry matter

VNR- volume of nutrional requirement based on protein

SOIL MANAGEMENT/IMPROVEMENT

Soil ancors plants by their root and from it derive their supply of mineral, salt, water and some cases air. Plant depend only the top soil which contain humus which is usually darker in coulor.

The soil is said to be fertile when it has in it the nutrient in the right quantites for optimum growth of a specific plant.

Practices which increase or maintain soil fertility

In songhaai the follinng are done to increase soil fertility

1 compost this is a form of manure obtaianed as plant and animals decay this while process may be completed between six to eight weeks

2 green manure this is made from green plant often cover crops mulch or weed which may be dug directly in to the soil on decaying thses plant form humus which enrichies the soil. This manure increases the loam component of the soil

3farm yard manure this consist of faces and urine of farm animal together with plant parts which are left over from the food of these animals